Attitude Indicator

The attitude indicator (AI), formerly known as the gyro horizon or artificial horizon, is a flight instrument that informs the pilot of the aircraft orientation relative to Earth’s horizon, and gives an immediate indication of the smallest orientation change. The miniature aircraft and horizon bar mimic the relationship of the aircraft relative to the actual horizon. It is a primary instrument for […]

Continue Reading

Vertical Speed Indicator

A vertical speed indicator (VSI) is one of the flight instruments in an aircraft used to inform the pilot of the rate of descent or climb.[1] It can be calibrated in feet per minute, knots (1 kn ≈ 100 ft/min) or metres per second (1 m/s ≈ 200 ft/min), depending on country and type of aircraft. In powered flight the pilot makes frequent use of the VSI to ascertain that level flight is being maintained, especially […]

Continue Reading

Air Speed Indicator

The airspeed indicator (ASI) or airspeed gauge is a flight instrument indicating the airspeed of an aircraft in miles per hour (MPH), knots, or both. The ASI measures the pressure differential between static pressure from the static port, and total pressure from the pitot tube. This difference in pressure is registered with the ASI pointer on the face of the instrument. The ASI has standard color coded markings for the safe operation within […]

Continue Reading

Altimeter

The altimeter shows the aircraft’s altitude above sea-level by measuring the difference between the pressure in a stack of aneroid capsules inside the altimeter and the atmospheric pressure obtained through the static system.  It is adjustable for local barometric pressure which must be set correctly to obtain accurate altitude readings. As the aircraft ascends, the capsules expand and the […]

Continue Reading