The Turn and Slip Indicator

In aviation, the turn and slip indicator (T/S, a.k.a. turn and bank indicator) and the turn coordinator (TC) variant are essentially two aircraft flight instruments in one device. One indicates the rate of turn, or the rate of change in the aircraft’s heading; the other part indicates whether the aircraft is in coordinated flight, showing the slip or skid of the turn. The slip indicator is actually […]

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The Magnetic Compass

The magnetic compass shows the aircraft’s heading relative to magnetic north. Errors include Variation, or the difference between magnetic and true direction, and Deviation, caused by the electrical wiring in the aircraft, which requires a Compass Correction Card. Additionally, the compass is subject to Dip Errors. While reliable in steady level flight it can give […]

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The Airspeed Indicator

The airspeed indicator shows the aircraft’s speed (usually in knots ) relative to the surrounding air. It works by measuring the ram-air pressure in the aircraft’s Pitot tube relative to the ambient static pressure. The indicated airspeed (IAS) must be corrected for non-standard pressure and temperature in order to obtain the true airspeed (TAS). The […]

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The Direction Indicator

The direction indicator (also called an DI) or heading indicator (also called an HI) is a flight instrument used in an aircraft to inform the pilot of the aircraft’s heading. The primary means of establishing the heading in most small aircraft is the magnetic compass, which suffers from several types of errors. The dip error […]

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The Attitude Indicator

The attitude indicator (AI), formerly known as the gyro horizon or artificial horizon, is a flight instrument that informs the pilot of the aircraft orientation relative to Earth’s horizon, and gives an immediate indication of the smallest orientation change. The miniature aircraft and horizon bar mimic the relationship of the aircraft relative to the actual […]

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The Altimeter

The altimeter shows the aircraft’s altitude above sea-level by measuring the difference between the pressure in a stack of aneroid capsules inside the altimeter and the atmospheric pressure obtained through the static system.  It is adjustable for local barometric pressure which must be set correctly to obtain accurate altitude readings. As the aircraft ascends, the capsules expand and the […]

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